Ostrom Lab Research
Cell-surface receptors that link to heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) represent the most numerous transmembrane signal transduction pathways. Indeed, membrane-bound G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the largest superfamilies in the human genome, comprising approximately 3% of human genes. These G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) transduce signals by coupling to G proteins that regulate an array of effector molecules. Adenylyl cyclase is one such effector enzyme. Adenylyl cyclase synthesizes the second messenger cyclic adenosine 3’,5’ monophosphate (cAMP) from ATP. cAMP, via its activation of PKA, initiates both rapid actions, such as regulation of ion channels, and carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism, as well as more delayed effects, such as changes in gene expression, cell growth and proliferation. Adenylyl cyclase exists in nine different isoforms that have different regulatory properties and, as we have recently found, different localization in the plasma membrane.